Preheat oven to 350° F. Grease a 9 x 13-inch baking dish; set aside.
Cook pasta in a large pot of salted boiling water for about 1 minute less than al dente, according to package instructions. Drain.
While the pasta cooks, heat a large skillet or Dutch oven over medium-high heat. Add the bacon and cook until crisp, about 5-7 minutes. Use a slotted spoon to remove the bacon to a paper towel-lined plate; reserve 1 tablespoon of the drippings in the pan. Add the ground beef and cook for 3 minutes (the meat doesn’t need to be completely cooked through at this point). Add the onion, celery, bell pepper and garlic; cook until the vegetables are soft, about 5-7 more minutes.
Stir in the tomato sauce, diced tomatoes, tomato paste, brown sugar, chili powder, oregano, cumin, cayenne, 1 teaspoon of kosher salt and ¼ teaspoon pepper. Taste and adjust seasonings, if necessary.
Add the cooked, drained noodles and the cooked bacon to the beef mixture; toss to combine.
Transfer to the prepared baking dish; top with shredded cheese.
Bake, uncovered, until the casserole is hot and bubbly, about 15-20 minutes.
Garnish with fresh parsley or green onion.